Tag: Architecture Design Services

Architectural Project Approach for Design-Bid-Build Project by Russell and Dawson
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Project Approach for Design-Bid-Build Public and Private Projects

Project Approach for Design-Bid-Build Project_By Russell and Dawson

Stage 1: Interview and starting conversations

The client interviews with typically three to four individual architects or Architectural Design Firms to figure out if it’s a solid match with each other. Sometimes based on recommendations and prior work experience, the clients skip the interview round and directly start with a particular arrangement they have in their mind. Usually, this happens in privately bid projects wherein the decision lies in the sole discretion of the client. For public projects, more emphasis is given on past experience and qualification of the applicant firm or individual to win the project.

Stage 2: Information gathering (Emphasis on Analysis)

The client’s objectives, necessities, and prerequisites are discussed before the start of any project. The architects visit the site to conduct an on-site examination of the project site determining the existing condition and take as-built measurements of the existing structure. A set of as-built plans are made and duplicates are given to the client for their records. These are basic floor plans and exterior elevations–an insignificant set appearance that presently exists nearby. A surveyor is usually contacted at this stage wherein they do a site survey which is eventually incorporated in the as-built documents. The architects visit the city/county building division to audit relevant records which may consist of as-built drawings of the existing structure, previous surveys, public records, and other details of a property. The architects assemble data from state and city offices in regards to explicit land use and construction law necessities just as pre-submittal and pre-license strategies. They also carry out an assessment of building code and zoning requirements/constraints for the approved site plan and floor plan. The architects additionally make a work schedule to determine what will be done and by when.

Stage 3: Schematic Design and Feasibility (Emphasis on Design)

The modelers create 2-3 preliminary plans using the information gathered in stage 2. At this stage, the architects are likewise bringing plan ideas to the table. Perhaps there was a particular site highlight that could be upgraded with the new architecture or opportunities within the project which was not examined previously. The designers investigate the sequence of how you approach the structure and travel through the structure. The focal point of the structure is identified and worked upon. The overall areas of the functions inside the structure are thought of and graphically addressed in chart structure. The designs, outlines, and illustrations are simply charts at this stage – it’s not engineering yet. Elements like windows might be added schematically. Simple plans and elevations are sketched to address connections among spaces and to get the fundamental envelope shape. Material alternatives begin to turn out to be important for the conversation and a target spending plan is set up/affirmed for the overall project. At this stage, the number of meetings held is the maximum wherein the owner/client has a discussion with the architect to finalize one plan from different schematic alternatives.

Stage 4: Design Development and Permit Documents (Emphasis on Decision Making)

As choices keep on being made, the architects form the schematic drawings into permit documents. The designs develop from graphs to real engineering at this progression. The drawings are refined with respect to subtleties and methods. Materials are settled on and the modelers sort out how everything fits together (how does the floor meet the wall: base trim, flush trim, no trim). Window openings are additionally characterized by mullions and opening areas. Data from different specialists like a structural engineer, MEP engineers, is created and facilitated with the plan drawings. Determinations for materials, installations/machines, gathering subtleties, and significant code data are incorporated into the project. Recommendations from suppliers, subcontractors, and manufacturers are added to the drawing set. The client keeps on settling on choices at a more explicit degree of detail.

After approval and acceptance of the schematic design, develop the design in greater detail. Create detailed plans for building elevations, material selections, mechanical, plumbing, and electrical / control systems. Prepare a final design plan based on the input received from the owner(s), stakeholders, and any applicable government agencies responsible for the project approvals. In this phase, usually, the following plans are delivered; floor plans with a proposed basis of design openings and plumbing fixtures; overall dimensions; structural grid dimensions; interior wall dimensions; exterior elevations with a proposed basis of design openings and finishes; additional building sections; wall sections at all typical conditions; additional details to establish basis of design products.

Stage 5: Construction Documents and Permit Acquisition

A bunch of permit drawings is a simplified version of the construction set. The permit documents are utilized to submit, arrange, and get the building permit from the city or region. The city/county/town doesn’t normally audit every single detail of a structure however they simply need to ensure your meeting state, city, and local codes and standards. It is normally an effective utilization of time to turn in a permit document set, covering the prerequisites, to get the ball rolling with the city while the architects keep on working at a more intensive drawing set needed for construction. These drawings keep on creating down to the absolute last subtleties.

Stage 6: Bidding and Selecting a Subcontractor

This stage is typical for a public project wherein after the architectural plans are made, the designers prepare the bidding documents and run background checks for the proposals received. The general contractors are interviewed and a good fit is established. However, for private projects, the clients usually have few subcontractors in mind to execute the plan.

Stage 7: Construction Administration

The documents and drawings for the projects are complete and construction begins. The architect is usually retained during the construction phase to answer the questions raised by the contractors. Architects are able to give clarifications and administer the revisions if necessary. The architect also reviews the costing and overall scheduling of the project.

The construction administration services includes the following activities such as observe construction, inform the progress of work to the owner(s); ensure that all contractor(s) have obtained necessary construction permits; guard the owner against defects and deficiencies; review and approve shop drawings, mockups, and other submittals; prepare change orders, if required; assure technical compliance of construction in accordance with design documents and specifications; review correspondence between the owner and the contractor and take action if required; assure conformance to project construction schedule; prepare certificates of payment; inspect construction punch list at the project completion; and review and handover all the construction documents to owner at the project completion.

Benefits of Green Building Design_Russell and Dawson
Infographics

Benefits of Green Building

To reduce the environmental impact of urban communities, sustainable development is crucial. The building structures address almost 40% of the world’s emissions, and it is expected to double by 2060. Except if the new buildings and structures have green design plans, emissions will keep on developing at a similar speed.

The benefits of green structures are not just ecological – they additionally have a lower ownership cost over the long run, and they are more likely to be noticed by potential occupants. Green building owners make an extra contribution beyond what is required by law. Green building features increases the construction cost; however, they are recovered during the entire life cycle of the building by the savings achieved due to green designs. Green building owners are making efforts in achieving decarbonization targets, and they should be rewarded for it.

Some of the green design features can be Cogeneration, Fuel Cells, Solar Photovoltaic Panels, Solar thermal collectors, central chiller plant, geothermal heating and cooling, rainwater harvesting, grey and black water recycling, LED & Day lighting, occupancy sensing lighting controls, energy recovery ventilation, low flow plumbing fixtures, micro wind turbine, air filtration, electric load shifting, etc.

Russell and Dawson has successfully completed Architectural and Engineering Design Services for a green building Broward County Judicial Complex In Fort Lauderdale and achieved LEED Gold Certification.

Benefits of Green Building Design_Infographic by Russell and Dawson
Planning Construction_Russell and Dawson
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Planning Designs to facilitate Construction

Planning Construction_ By Russell and Dawson

Usually, there is a great impulse to hop immediately into the detailed design plan of a project. A brief period is spent on planning the design, in the persuasion that this will further develop efficiency. Time spent on planning can consistently be defended by shorter project schedules and programs, limited vulnerability along with cost controlling and budgeting.

In planning designs to best fulfill the client’s requirements of the building, its expense, and the timescale, it is fundamental to think about construction. Thus, it will be feasible to create a plan that facilitates construction. This approach of construction-led designs should be considered for better outcomes.

The accompanying parts of the project are influenced by this methodology:

  • Basic Design Decisions
  • Information flow at the construction and design phase
  • Work sequences on and off-site

The designers should also consider the approach of putting their design to use which is a requirement of CDM guidelines. Below are the 5 basic principles a designer should follow while planning for construction.

Thorough Investigation

A designer should have detailed information about the site where the building is supposed to be constructed. All the information must be clearly presented to the designer before the commencement of the designing phase. Lack of information may lead to costly modifications at a later stage. Ground conditions and levels, accessibility of the site, nearby structures which can get affected, environmental conditions, obstructions of any overhead cables, underground services, provision for equipment at the site should be known.

Plan for production necessities

The factors on-site such as accessibility, area, labor force etc. may dictate the design philosophy. The design of a planned structure should take into consideration the above factors. Access to and around the site may impose limitations on the number of individuals that can be utilized. For instance, a design plan which uses support to give an enormous and clear span, may at times be inappropriate if the truss is too large to be assembled and erected on site.

Another instance would be with a restrictive construction that may require the incorporation of pre-fabricated parts in the plan. Pre-fabricated parts may likewise be appropriate for export trade work at the point when labor costs at the site are high, or when there is a shortage of skilled workforce.

Plan for a sequence that is feasible

The designer should decide on a potential construction order that would fulfill the prerequisites of a primary contract worker while keeping up with the stability of the structure at all phases of construction. Modeling on software might be helpful in fostering the erection sequence, using a ‘virtual model’. The order ought to streamline and optimize the plant use. The plants should not be inactive for long durations. The weights of the principal members should not differ largely so that cranage can be utilized proficiently. The type of construction should be one that supports the best and safe sequence of building activities. The structural designer should outline the assumptions made when fostering the design plan in a “Design basis method of erection” (DBME). The DBME also considers the health and safety plan. The designer might have assumed the possible DBME method of erection, however, it doesn’t restrict the use of an alternative technique by the contract worker.

In case the contractor wishes to go for the alternative technique, it isn’t the obligation of the designer. The alternative method should be developed by the contractor and it should also comply with the health and safety plans. This allows avoiding health and safety issues such as working around overhead cables, over water, etc. The contractor shall send the revised strategy to the client or client’s representative for approval.

Logical sequence

The principal contract worker will set up a master contract program dependent on logical sequence and accessibility of data. This program is set to limit the requirement for return visits, and optimize the time spent on site. The designer’s decisions can affect the potential ‘effectiveness’ of this program. For instance, the utilization of steel decking in a multi-story frame empowers following trades to work at lower levels as steelwork erection proceeds up the structure. The program for steelwork erection will be more detailed than the master program, however, obviously should be viable with it.

Plan for simplicity of assembly

The designer should plan and detail a structure to enhance the simplicity of assembly. Standard and simplified connections should be utilized at every possible opportunity. Time and cost penalties are frequently connected with an unusual form of construction due to the learning curve impact. Automated and computerized methods can help to speed up development and lessen costs.

Steps-for-a-well-managed-design-process-to-facilitate-construction_Russell and Dawson

Design Complexity

Designing itself is a complex procedure, and it keeps getting complex as knowledge increases. Various individuals from a broad range of organizations contribute to the continuous exchange and addition of information. It is the responsibility of the principal designer to provide accurate information to all the parties involved in the construction of a building.

With the use of software for steel structure and framing, it has become easier to get calculations of forces and moments. It is fundamental that a qualitative feel for how designs act isn’t lost as frames grow in complexity.

Design Team

The best projects are those wherein the client has a long-haul relationship with the design experts and contractors. When such ‘collaboration’ isn’t embraced, the client should pick an appropriate strategy to select an Architectural Design Firm.

The construction situation takes an alternate structure contingent upon the kind of agreement between the client and the design team. The three most basic kinds of agreement utilized are:

Traditional Approach where the client hires an Engineer to do the designs and a contractor who does the construction task.

Design-Build Approach: In this approach, the client hires a single firm that does the designing and construction tasks. One of the benefits of this kind of agreement is that the contractor for hire or potentially subcontractors are almost certain to be included from a beginning phase, so their construction experience can be embraced in the design plan. Russell and Dawson Inc completed a design-build project for Fairfield Inn and Suites, Williamstown, MA wherein we designed and constructed the hotel. This approach led to the smooth and successful completion of the project.

Construction Management Approach: In this form of contract, the client hires a project manager who then hires the other team members on behalf of the owner and acts as a client representative.

Agreement of information

A program should be complied and concurred so that dates by which data is required are fixed. The lead zone designer should guarantee that each aspect of the work is defined completely and accurately. A framework or system should be set up to cautiously screen drawings and amendments to the schedule, to guarantee that all parties are working to the most recent data.

The appointed project manager or client’s representative must play an active role in making decisions at key points. He/she should liaise with the design team to assemble all the necessary information, agree to it, and sign the contract.

For instance, a contractor might face some issues on site however the project manager might not comprehend the imperative forced by site conditions. A concrete and clean understanding between the parties is required to ensure that the information supply is integrated with the construction need.

Modern working practices have reduced the timescales which have influenced the transfer or supply of information to all parties. However, with the increased use of cloud designing software, the transfer of information has become easier and quicker.

Coordination

Many organizations or individuals are involved in the designing phase. There is the contribution of information from various sources with their own objective. Structural, Architectural or MEP designers etc. designers may be concerned with small parts of the project which increases the problem of coordination. With a construction-led approach, the designers can have a formal meeting at key stages to agree upon programs and details.

Interfaces

Physical interfaces are basically the features of the building and may show up between components, systems, and zones. A clear separation of systems crossing the zones must be made. Lead designers can negotiate with everyone involved to establish the line of interface, the policy on tolerances, etc.

Design Development

Design development must be carefully controlled because primary designers require large amounts of information from various sources. Allowances for design development may be built-in to the design program to cope with the sorts of problems which, often arise in practice. There may be periods during which a two-way exchange of information between the design and construction teams is possible, but ever decreasing timescales are reducing the possibility for such overlaps.

Conclusion

Before kick-starting any building project, it is essential to take into consideration planning, management, and designing issues. Designing for construction helps designers to know about the important aspects of the site before commencing the project.

Top Patient Centered Elements to be considered while Designing Hospitals_Infographic_Russell and Dawson
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Top Patient Centered Elements to be considered while Designing Hospitals

Today, the patient’s experience is perceived as an instrument for improving healthcare facilities. As architects, we should focus on these patient-focused components to make positive responses for all the people inside a medical facility. For patients, these design elements have the ability to guarantee a comfortable visit for patients and their families, quicker recovery and improved results.

The Architectural Designs Firm working on the layout of a healthcare facility can improve the lives of patients. The objective is to improve internal processes in which different spaces of the emergency clinic participate to bring higher efficiency and better quality services perceived by patients.

Top Patient Centered Elements to be considered while Designing Hospitals_Infographic_Russell and Dawson
Covid19 Impact on architectural design_Infographic_Russell and Dawson
Infographics

How has COVID-19 changed Architectural Design?

Hoping to react constructively to the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous architects have turned to what they know best: design and innovation. The new limitations put on society have been an impetus to reexamine a lot of what we underestimate in the built environment. The manner in which the world has adjusted to this new way of life may estimate new normals following the COVID-19 pandemic.

Despite the fact that we can’t precisely say what the future will resemble, we can inspect latest trends, strategies and ideas that have assumed immense roles during the pandemic. The accompanying patterns may lastingly affect the manner in which urban areas are planned. Architectural Design Firms have already shifted their strategies in complying with the new design changes led by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Architectural design changes due to covid19_infographic_by Russell and Dawson
5 Stages of Architectural Design Phases_Russell and Dawson
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5 Stages of Architectural Design Process

You might have wondered what are different stages while providing Architectural Design Services. Be it hotel, residential design architecture, commercial, warehouse, storage, industrial or retail, etc. In this article, we will explain all phases that are involved in a design-build of a new construction/development project.

There are typically 5 stages of architectural design involved in a design-build of any project.

These 5 phases/stages are

PRE-DESIGN (PD)

The first objective is to get-together with a client and determines overall project vision and goals. There are some key areas to discuss the project – scope, features, purpose, and functionality.

SCHEMATIC DESIGN (SD)

In this phase, we do series of rough sketches/drawings that illustrate the basic concepts of the design. Also, initial research of local compliance and regulations are completed at this time.

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT (DD)

This phase involves finalizing the design and specifying items such as materials, window and door locations and general structural details.

CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS (CD)

By now we have a final design. We can begin preparing construction drawings/blueprints, notes, and technical specifications necessary for bidding, construction, and permit application.

CONSTRUCTION

During this phase, we will build as per the design intent. Also if there are any changes, we discuss changes and options with the owner. It ensure that alterations are compatible with owner’s vision for the project.

  • PRE-DESIGN (PD)

    The first objective is to get-together with a client and determines overall project vision and goals. There are some key areas to discuss the project – scope, features, purpose, and functionality.

  • SCHEMATIC DESIGN (SD)

    In this phase, we do series of rough sketches/drawings that illustrate the basic concepts of the design. Also, initial research of local compliance and regulations are completed at this time.

  • DESIGN DEVELOPMENT (DD)

    This phase involves finalizing the design and specifying items such as materials, window and door locations and general structural details.

  • CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS (CD)

    By now we have a final design. We can begin preparing construction drawings/blueprints, notes, and technical specifications necessary for bidding, construction, and permit application.

  • CONSTRUCTION

    During this phase, we will build as per the design intent. Also if there are any changes, we discuss changes and options with the owner. It ensure that alterations are compatible with owner’s vision for the project.

1 – PRE-DESIGN (PD)

The first objective is to get-together with a client and determines overall project vision and goals. Irrespective of the industry being residential, healthcare, industrial, hospitality etc., there are some key areas to discuss the project –  scope, features, purpose, and functionality.

In this phase, we carry out

  • Client consultation
  • Existing conditions survey and documentation
  • Photographs
  • Measurements
  • Compile existing drawings if any
  • Prepare high-level base drawings
  • Statement of probable build/construction cost
  • Programming space and use
  • Code review

This phase ends with owner’s decision to move forward with a project.

2 – SCHEMATIC DESIGN (SD)

In this phase, we do series of rough sketches/drawings that illustrate the basic concepts of the design.  Also, initial research of local compliance and regulations are completed at this time.

At the end of this phase, we deliver

  • Floor plans of all levels with generic openings and plumbing fixtures
  • Exterior building elevations with representative openings and finishes
  • Building cross-section
  • Typical wall section

And we move to the next phase with the owner’s approval.

3 – DESIGN DEVELOPMENT (DD)

Design development collects the results from the schematic design phase and takes them one step further.

This phase involves finalizing the design and specifying items such as materials, window and door locations and general structural details.

At the end of this phase, we deliver

  • Floor plans with a proposed basis of design openings and plumbing fixtures
  • Overall dimensions
  • Structural grid dimensions
  • Interior wall dimensions
  • Exterior elevations with a proposed basis of design openings and finishes
  • Additional building sections
  • Wall sections at all typical conditions
  • Typical details
  • Additional details to establish a basis for design products

Now we have given shape to project ’s vision through drawings and written specifications.

4 – CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS (CD)

By now we have a final design. We can begin preparing construction drawings/blueprints, notes, and technical specifications necessary for bidding, construction, and permit application. Construction contractors will use these detailed drawings and specifications to prepare for the construction.

In this phase, we deliver

  • Floor plans fully annotated
  • All dimensions
  • Room, wall, door, and window identification
  • Section and detail indicators
  • General notes and detailed notes
  • Exterior elevations fully annotated
  • All building sections required for construction
  • Wall sections at all conditions
  • Details fully annotated
  • Structural plans, details, and notes
  • Plumbing plans, schedules, details, and notes
  • HVAC plans, schedules, details, and notes
  • Electrical power and lighting plans, schedules, details, and notes

And we move to the final phase

5 – CONSTRUCTION

Construction Administration Services by Russell and Dawson for Hotel Development

Finally, the construction is underway.

During this phase, we will build as per the design intent. Also if there are any changes, we discuss changes and options with the owner. It ensure that alterations are compatible with owner’s vision for the project. This is the last phase and at the end of this phase, a project is ready for the use/occupancy.

Feel free to reach out to us on info@rdaep.com if you are planning a new construction project. Check out the latest Hotel construction trends in Northeast of USA.

TRANSFORMING CONSTRUCTION PROCESS WITH LEAN CONSTRUCTION
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Transforming Construction Process with Lean Construction

TRANSFORMING CONSTRUCTION PROCESS WITH LEAN CONSTRUCTION

Lean construction is derived from the concepts of lean manufacturing, and it combines operational research and practical construction design development. Many lean manufacturing practices and principles for end-to-end design are implemented in the lean construction process. To simplify, lean construction is about managing and improving construction process to satisfy customer needs and achieve quality, schedule delivery, safety and profitability.

Why Lean Construction?

There are three key priorities in any construction process:

  1. Keep the work flowing so that the workforce employed are always productive
  2. Reduce inventory of tools and materials
  3. Reduce waste and inefficiency inefficiency

To simplify, optimal usage of materials, time and efforts are crucial in the construction process for generating value in the process. Moreover, for any project, the system needs to collaborate business owners, AEC, contracts, facility managers, workers and various other teams at the early project stage. Lean construction identifies the gaps and aims to benefit the overall construction plan.

Lean construction follows the lean production approach, but it is differently perceived during practical implementation. Various workflows are integrated into the construction planning process to align the supply chain to maximize the value and minimize the waste. Toyota and other such companies have pioneered the lean model using TQM, SPC, and Six-Sigma to meet customer demands and improve business profitability.

How to implement Lean Construction?

We can implement Lean construction by using CPM and work breakdown structure. Other tools and methods are also used like Last Planner System, Target Value Design, and Lean Project Delivery System.

There are also toolkits available to implement Lean construction like:

  • Lean Design: BIM, A3, Process Design, Kanban
  • Lean Supply: JIT, 6S
  • Lean Assembly: Value Chain Mapping, Visual Site, Daily Crew Huddles

The lean principles can be implemented entirely and efficiently by focusing on refining the whole construction process. It requires all teams, stakeholders to be committed, involved, and work to overcome obstacles that may arise from traditional contractual arrangements.

Each departments need to follow below guidelines:

For Construction:

  • Clear communication of project plans
  • Training the team to improve teamwork and multi-skills
  • Daily progress reporting and improvement meetings
  • A well-motivated, well-trained, flexible and fully engaged workforce

For Design:

  • Leverage Virtual Reality or 3D design to adequately visualize and define the project requirements from the customer’s perspective
  • Value Management to get better clarity and focus on client value
  • Use of integrated design and build arrangements (including partnering) to encourage close cooperation between designers, constructors, and specialist suppliers
  • Design for Standardization and Pre-assembly – both of components and processes to achieve higher quality and cost and time savings.

For Procurement:

  • Supply chain management and rationalization of the supply chain to integrate all stakeholders to contribute to delivering the overall customer value
  • Transparency of costs – elimination of waste in both processes and activities requires a clear and complete understanding of costs to ensure right decisions on customer value.
  • We must address confidentiality of expense and cash flows
  • Eliminating the boundaries between companies by partnering and getting more contribution to achieve a common goal

For Construction Planning:

  • Establish ‘best in class’ construction methods and outputs
  • Formation of a stable project program, with precise identification of critical path
  • Risk management – to manage risks throughout the project

For Logistics:

  • Just-in-time delivery of materials to the point of use eliminates the need for on-site storage and double handling

RDAEP is a full-service architectural, engineering and construction firm to help you optimize the construction process with lean principles. Our services include architecture, HVAC, plumbing, electrical engineering, interior design and structural engineering services. Call us on (860) 289-1100 or Contact Us for your design-built requirements.